6-5 “Farms and Factories”

Module 6, Unit 5

“Farms and Factories”

Base Sentences – (811-825)

811 Because of the warm and sunny weather, oranges grow very well here.

811 Из-за теплой и солнечной погодой, апельсины растут очень хорошо здесь.

812 In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and, raise cattle.

812 в этой квартире людей страны выращивают пшеницу и кукурузу, и разводить скот.

813 The ground around here is stony and not very good for farming.

813 Земля вокруг здесь каменистые и не очень хорошо для сельского хозяйства.

814 What are the principal farm products in this region?

814 Каковы основные сельскохозяйственные продукты в этом регионе?

815 Milk, butter, and cheese are shipped here from the dairy farms.

815 Молоко, масло и сыр поставляется сюда из молочно-товарных ферм.

816 They had to cut down a lot of trees to make room for farms.

816 Они должны были срубить много деревьев, чтобы освободить место для фермерских хозяйств.

817 At this time of the year farmers plow their fields.

817 В это время года фермерам пахать свои поля.

818 On many farms you’ll find cows and chickens.

818 Во многих хозяйствах вы найдете коров и кур.

819 If you have cows you have to get up early to do the milking.

819 Если у вас есть коровы вы должны встать рано, чтобы делать доения.

820 Tractors have revolutionized farming.

820 тракторов произвели революцию сельского хозяйства.

821 In the United States, there are many factories for making cloth.

821 В Соединенных Штатах, Есть много заводов для изготовления ткани.

822 Factories employ both male and female workers.

822 Фабрики работают как мужчины, так и женщин.

823 If you work in a factory, you usually have to punch a clock.

823 Если вы работаете на заводе, вы обычно должны пробить часы.

824 Is meat packing a big industry in your country?

824 мясокомбинатов крупной промышленности в Вашей стране?

825 Is it true that the manufacturing of automobiles is a major industry?

825 Правда ли, что производство автомобилей является основной отраслью?

Verb Study

1. grow => [grew, grown], growing, grows

(A) Because of the warm climate, oranges grow very well here. (B) I used to see a lot of oranges growing here, but I don’t anymore. (C) Last year the farmer grew corn on this land. I don’t know what he’ll grow this year. (D) If your land had been fertile, you could have grown tobacco. (A) В связи с теплым климатом, апельсины растут очень хорошо здесь. (B) я видела много апельсинов произрастающих здесь, но я не делаю больше. (C) В прошлом году фермер кукурузу выросли на этой земле. Я не знаю, что он будет расти в этом году. (D) Если ваша земля была плодородной, вы могли бы выросли табак.

2. raise => raised, raising, raises

(A) In this flat country people raise cattle. (B) I’m raising chickens this year. (C) Mr. Cooper raises cattle on his farm, doesn’t he? (D) I’ve often raised chickens, but I’ve never raised pigs. (A) В этой плоской стране людей разводить скот. (B) Я разводить кур в этом году. (C) Г-н Купер поднимает скота на своей ферме, не так ли? (D) я часто разводили кур, но я никогда не разводили свиней.

3. be shipped => is/are shipped, was/were shipped

(A) Milk, butter and cheese are shipped here from the dairy farms. (B) The books you want were shipped to you three months ago. (C) If the books had been shipped several months ago, I would have gotten them by now. (A) молоко, сливочное масло и сыр поставляется сюда из молочно-товарных ферм. (B) книги вы хотите были погружены к вам три месяца назад. (C) Если книги были отправлены несколько месяцев назад, я бы получил их в настоящее время.

4. cut down => [cut down], cutting, cuts

(A) They had to cut down a lot of trees to make room for farms. (B) They’re cutting down all the trees in this area. (C) Who cut this tree down? Do you know? (D) If I had cut that tree down, I would have told you about it. (A) Они должны были срубить много деревьев, чтобы освободить место для фермерских хозяйств. (B) Они вырубки все деревья в этой области. (C), которые урезают этого дерева вниз? Знаете ли вы? (D) Если я сократил это дерево вниз, я сказал бы вам об этом.

5. plow => plowed, plowing, plows

(A) At this time of the year farmers plow their fields. (B) He always plows his fields in September or October. (C) I wish I had finished plowing the fields this morning. (A) В это время года фермерам пахать свои поля. (B) Он всегда пашет свои поля в сентябре или октябре. (C) Жаль, что я закончил вспашки полей сегодня утром.

6. revolutionize => revolutionized, revolutionizing, revolutionizes

(A) Tractors have revolutionized farming. (B) The new tractors are revolutionizing farming around here. (C) Modern machinery has revolutionized industry. (A) Тракторы революцию сельского хозяйства. (B) новых тракторов реконструируют земледелия здесь. (C) Современное оборудование революцию промышленности.

7. employ => employed, employing, employs

(A) Factories employ both male and female workers. (B) This company employs ten people. (C) If they had employed me, I would have worked hard. (A) Фабрики работают как мужчины, так и женщин. (B) Эта компания работает десять человек. (C) Если бы они меня на работу, я бы работал.

8. punch (a clock) => punched, punching, punches

(A) If you work in a factory, you usually have to punch a clock. (B) What time did you punch the clock this morning? (C) As soon as he got to work this morning, he punched the clock. (A) Если вы работаете на заводе, вы обычно должны пробить часы. (B) В какое время вы удар часов утра? (C) Как только он получил на работу сегодня утром, он ударил кулаком часы.

Word Substitution Drills

1a Because of the warm and sunny weather, oranges grow very well here.

1b Because of the warm and sunny weather, lemons grow very well here.

1c Because of the warm and sunny weather, cotton and peanuts grow very well here.

1d Because of the warm and sunny weather, tobacco and rice grow very well here.

1e Because of the warm and sunny weather, fruits grow very well here.

2a In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and raise cattle.

2b In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and raise pigs.

2c In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and raise sheep.

2d In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and raise chickens.

2e In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and raise thoroughbreds.

3a The ground around here is stony and not very good for farming .

3b The ground around here is swamp land and not very good for farming .

3c The ground around here is mostly clay and not very good for farming .

3d The ground around here is rocky and not very good for farming .

4a What are the principal farm products in this region?

4b What are the principal crops in this region?

4c What are the principal natural resources in this region?

4d What are the principal minerals in this region?

5a Milk, butter and cheese are shipped here from the dairy farms.

5b Milk, butter and cheese are brought in here from the dairy farms.

5c Milk, butter and cheese are transported here from the dairy farms.

5d Milk, butter and cheese are flown here from the dairy farms.

6a They had to cut down a lot of trees to make room for farms.

6b They had to clear a lot of land to make room for farms.

6c They had to burn a lot of underbrush to make room for farms.

6d They had to work for many years to make room for farms.

7a At this time of year, farmers plow their fields.

7b At this time of year, farmers cultivate their lands.

7c At this time of year, farmers plant their fields.

7d At this time of year, farmers harvest their crops.

7e At this time of year, farmers get ready for the autumn harvest.

8a On many farms you’ll find cows and chickens.

8b On many farms you’ll find livestock.

8c On many farms you’ll find pet dogs and cats.

8d On many farms you’ll find modern farm equipment.

9a If you have cows you have to get up early to do the milking.

9b If you have livestock you have to get up early to do the feeding.

9c If you have crops you have to get up early to do the plowing.

10a Tractors have revolutionized farming.

10b Modern farm implements have revolutionized farming.

10c Milkers have revolutionized farming.

10d Binders and threshers have revolutionized farming.

10e Hay loaders and reapers have revolutionized farming.

10f Feed grinders have revolutionized farming.

11a In the United States, there are many factories for making cloth.

11b In the United States, there are many factories for making automobiles.

11c In the United States, there are many factories for making furniture.

11d In the United States, there are many factories for making leather goods.

11e In the United States, there are many factories for making steel.

11f In the United States, there are many factories for making appliances.

12a Factories employ both male and female workers.

12b Factories give jobs to both male and female workers.

12c Factories have work for both male and female workers.

13a If you work in a factory, you usually have to punch a clock.

13b If you work in a factory, you usually have to carry a lunch to work.

13c If you work in a factory, you usually have to get to work on time.

13d If you work in a factory, you usually have to work five days a week.

14a Is meat packing a big industry in your country?

14b Is food processing a big industry in your country?

14c Is fishing a big industry in your country?

14d Is fish canning a big industry in your country?

15a Is it true that the manufacturing of automobiles is a major industry?

15b Is it true that the manufacturing of airplanes is a major industry?

15c Is it true that the manufacturing of clothing is a major industry?

15d Is it true that the manufacturing of furniture is a major industry?

Reading Practice

The Jensens are a typical American farm family. Mr. and Mrs. Jensen came from Norway many years ago and settled on a dairy farm in Minnesota. Their four children grew up there. Jensens являются типичной американской семейной ферме. Мистер и миссис Дженсен из Норвегии много лет назад и поселились на молочной ферме в штате Миннесота. Их четверо детей выросли там.

The two boys, Olaf and Carl, helped their father take care of the farm. They plowed and planted the fields, harvested the crops and milked the cows. Два мальчика, Олаф и Карл, помогал отцу заботиться о ферме. Они пахали и посадил полях, собрали культур и доили коров.

The daughters, Inga and Sigrid, helped their mother with the housework. There was always a lot to do and the whole family worked very hard. Дочерей, Инга и Сигрид, помогал матери по хозяйству. Был всегда много, чтобы сделать, и вся семья очень много работал.

Today Mr. and Mrs. Jensen are old and cannot work as hard as they did when they were younger. Their son Olaf runs the farm now and his wife and children help him. The work is not as hard now as it used to be. Olaf has bought several machines which do many of the things formerly done by hand. Сегодня г-н и г-жа Йенсен стары и не могут работать так сложно, как они сделали, когда они были моложе. Их сын Олафа работает ферма теперь и его жену и детей ему помочь. Работы не так сложно, теперь, как это было раньше. Олаф купил несколько машин, которые делают многие вещи, ранее выполнялись вручную.

The other three children have moved away. Sigrid married a farmer and lives nearby. Carl is living in Minneapolis where he has a good job as manager of a factory which makes dairy products. Some of the milk used by the factory comes from Olaf Jensen’s farm. Inga went to the State University and is now teaching in a high school in St. Paul. Три другие дети отошли. Сигрид вышла замуж за фермера и живет неподалеку. Карла живет в Миннеаполисе, где он имеет хорошую работу в качестве руководителя завода, который делает молочные продукты. Некоторые из молока, используемого на заводе происходит от фермы Olaf Дженсена. Инга пошла в государственном университете и в настоящее время преподает в средней школе в Сент-Пол.

The story of the Jensens is not unusual. Although life on the farm has changed a great deal, farming is still a necessary and very important occupation. However, city life attracts young people like Carl and Inga Jensen. Every year many of them leave the farms and take jobs in the many factories which are located in or near large cities. История Jensens нет ничего необычного. Хотя жизнь на ферме изменилось многое, сельское хозяйство по-прежнему необходимым и очень важным занятием. Тем не менее, жизнь города привлекает молодых людей, как Карл и Инга Йенсен. Каждый год многие из них оставляют ферм и устроиться на работу во многих заводов, которые находятся в пределах или вблизи крупных городов.

Questions

1. Describe the Jensen family.

2. What are some of the things that farmers do?

3. Do all of The Jensens still live on the farm?

4. What important products are made from milk?

5. Why is farming important?

6. Which do you prefer, farm life or city life? Why?

Word List

appliance прибор It’s best to buy durable appliances that last a long time.

autumn осень It’s almost autumn, the weather’s getting colder.

because of из-за Because of the demand for appliances, the factory increased production.

binder сена связующего a. A machine that reaps and ties grain. b. An attachment on a reaping machine that ties grain in bundles.

clay глина Most plants don’t like to grow in clay.

cloth ткань Does this factory produce cotton cloth?

clothing одежда The United States produces clothing in great abundance.

dairy молочная Dairy products are in demand in this region. His father owns a dairy.

equipment снаряжение Farm equipment is quite expensive.

feed grinder кормить мясорубки A feed grinder grinds several plant materials together and produces a pelletized feed for horses and other livestock.

female самка A cow is a female bovine and a bull is a male bovine.

field поле Farmers generally work out in the fields every day.

fish canning рыбных консервов Cannery Row in Monterey California is famous for fish canning.

food processing пищевая промышленность The food processing industry in America is quite large.

ground грунт The ground here is very rich and good for growing cotton.

harvest урожай The harvest this year is quite good.

hay loader погрузчик сена A hay loader is a machine for farmers that picks up bales of hay or straw prepared by a hay baler, stacks them on a platform, and transports them to a stacking site.

implement инструмент An agricultural implement is a tool or machine used in agriculture.

industry промышленность This industry is difficult to manage.

lemon лимон Lemons are expensive and not very easy to grow as they ripen quite slowly.

livestock скот Livestock are farm animals, with the exception of poultry. In the USA they are primarily cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, horses, donkeys, and mules.

male самец A male bovine is called a bull.

manufacturing производство The major manufacturing area is in the Great Lakes area.

meat packing мясокомбинатов Meat packing is a major industry in the city of Chicago.

milker доильная машина A milking machine is commonly called a “milker” by farmers.

mostly главным образом The central part of American was mostly grassland.

peanut арахис The peanut plant is usually grown in the southern United States. They are native to South America and has been cultivated there for thousands of years. It is now grown in most tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions, especially in India and China (the major world producers), W Africa, and the SE United States.

pig свинья The state of Wisconsin is famous for raising pigs.

principal основной The principal product of California used to be citrus fruits.

product продукт The farm products from the west coast of America are of high quality.

reaper жнец A reaper is a farm implement that reaps (cuts) the stalks of grain and gathers them into bundles.

rice рис Rice is grown mainly in the southern states.

rocky скалистый The ground here is very rocky and not suitable for agriculture.

sheep овца A lot of sheep are raised in the state of Utah.

steel сталь The most steel mills are located in the north.

swamp болото This swamp needs to be drained.

thoroughbred чистокровный A thoroughbred is a light breed of racing and jumping horse descended from three desert stallions brought to England between 1689 and 1724. Thoroughbreds have a delicate head, slim body, broad chest, and short back. Most are bay, chestnut, brown, black, or gray. They stand about (64 in., 163 cm) high and weigh about 1,000 lbs (450 kg). They are sensitive and high-spirited and are often used to improve other stock.

thresher молотилка A thresher is a machine that separates grain or seeds from the ears, tassels, heads, and cobs of agricultural plants.Also known as threshing machine.

tobacco табак The state of Virginia is famous for growing fine quality tobacco.

tractor трактор In agriculture, a tractor is a vehicle used to pull such equipment as plows, cultivators, and mowers; to power stationary devices such as saws and winches; and to push snowplows and earth-moving implements. Early tractors were steam-driven; now they are generally powered by gasoline or diesel engines.

true правда Is it true that manufacturing production in the United States is lower than it was last year?

underbrush подлесок The underbrush must be cleared first before it can be used. Underbrush is a group of plants consisting of shrubs or, less frequently, tree varieties that never form part of the dominant crown cover.

wheat пшеница Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East and Ethiopian Highlands, but now cultivated worldwide.

Verb Forms

bring in,

brought in (p. and p. part.)

cultivate

cut down,

cut down (p. and p. part.)

plant

plow

punch

revolutionize

ship

transport

Expressions

do the feeding

do the milking

do the plowing

make room (for)

punch a clock

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